Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Leadership Approach

Leadership Approach for Team Members University of Phoenix March 4, 2013 Leadership Approach for Team Members Mr. Peck, my team is comprised of four members. After taking the Jungian’s 16-Type Personality Self-Assessment, each member has identified their personality and possible career choices and has shared it among the group. Each member’s classification is discussed in this paragraph. Team member 1, scored ENTP. Under the analysis and interpretation each member’s classification with this type of personality describes one who is innovative, individualistic, versatile, and entrepreneurial.Team member 2, scored ENTJ. This personality is identifies a person who is outgoing, a visionary, argumentative, have a low tolerance for incompetence, and often seen as a natural leader. Team member 3 scored ISFP which means they have a personality of warmth, sensitive, unassuming and artistic. The 4th member of the team scored ISFJ which states they are loyal, amiable, and wi lling to make sacrifices for the greater good. Each score depicts the uniqueness of each personality. According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary (n. d. ) â€Å"diversity is defined as an instance of being composed of differing elements or qualities. Each member carries a different personality trait. Not only are there uniqueness among the group, we are diverse in our own rights. Leadership Theories In Chapter 17 of Management the topic of â€Å"Managers as Leaders†; we learned about the five leadership trait theories. â€Å"These early leadership theories focused on the leader (leadership trait theory) and how the leader interacted with his group members (leadership behavior theories. )† Other trait theories include the contingency trait theory, and leadership member exchange theory. (Robbins.S. P & Culter, 2012). I will assign a leadership approach for each team member based on the theories of leadership. Evaluate the Situation In Terms Of Urgency In terms of urgency, w hen entering a new market several things come to mine. A strategic plan needs to be developed. This plan will lay out the goals and objectives for the new department. It would also be good to conduct a SWOT analysis to identify the strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats of entering into the new market and lastly a good marketing plan would be essential.The marketing will assist you in answering important questing such as is this new product or an existing product? What are the internal and external factors affecting the success of your new product line? What is the overall goal? These are just a few of the questions you would ask in developing a market plan. Determine Leadership Approaches Each team member comes with differentiating gifts, talents, strengths, weaknesses and personalities. For this reason alone their individual leadership approach will differ. In Chapter 17 of Management the topic of â€Å"Managers as Leaders†; we learned about the six leadership trait theories. These early leadership theories focused on the leader (leadership trait theory) and how the leader interacted with his group members (leadership behavior theories. )† Other trait theories include the contingency trait theory, and leadership member exchange theory. (Robbins. S. P & Culter, 2012). Reference Diversity. (n. d. ). In Merriam-Webster dictionary. Retrieved from http://www. merriam- webster. com/dictionary Robbins. S. P & Coulter, M. (2012). Management (11th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Do Mood Rings Work Can a Ring Tell How You Feel

Mood rings surfaced as a fad in the 1970s and have remained popular ever since. The rings feature a stone that changes colors when you wear it on your finger. In the original mood ring, the color blue was supposed to indicate that the wearer was happy, green when she was calm, and brown or black when she was anxious. Modern mood rings use different chemicals, so their colors may be different, but the basic premise remains the same: The ring changes color to reflect emotions. Relationship Between Emotion and Temperature Do mood rings really work? Can a mood ring tell your mood? While the color change cant indicate emotions with any real accuracy, it can reflect temperature changes caused by the bodys physical reaction to emotions. When youre anxious, blood is directed toward the bodys core, reducing the temperature at extremities like the fingers. When you are calm, more blood flows through the fingers, making them warmer. When youre excited or have been exercising, increased circulation warms your fingers. While the temperature of your finger—thus the color of the mood ring—may change in response to your emotions, fingers change the temperature for any number of reasons. So its not uncommon for a mood ring to provide erroneous results based on factors such as the weather or your health. Thermochromic Crystals and Temperature The stone of a mood ring consists of a thin, sealed capsule of crystals, which change color in response to shifts in temperature, covered by a glass or crystal gem. These thermochromic crystals within the encapsulated layer twist in response to changes in temperature, reflecting a different wavelength (color) of light with each change. When Black Means Broken Old mood rings turned black or gray for another reason besides low temperature. If water gets under the crystal of the ring, it disrupts the liquid crystals. Getting the crystals wet permanently ruins their ability to change color. Modern mood rings dont necessarily turn black. The bottom of newer stones may be colored so that when the ring loses its ability to change color its still attractive. How Accurate Are the Colors? Since mood rings are sold as novelty items, a toy or jewelry company can put whatever it wants on the color chart that comes with the mood ring. Some companies try to match the colors to what your mood might be for a given temperature. Others probably just go with whatever chart looks pretty. Theres no regulation or standard that applies to all mood rings. However, most companies use liquid crystals that have been engineered to display a neutral or calm color at around 98.6 F or 37 C, which is close to normal human skin temperature. These crystals can twist to change colors at slightly warmer or cooler temperatures. Other mood jewelry is also available, including necklaces and earrings. Since these ornaments arent always worn touching the skin, they may change color in response to temperature but cant reliably indicate the wearers mood. Experiment With Mood Rings How accurate are mood rings at predicting emotion? You can get one and test it yourself. While the original rings sold in the 1970s were expensive (about $50 for silvertone and $250 for goldtone), modern rings are under $10. Collect your own data and see whether they work for you.

Monday, December 30, 2019

Operation Management of Ikea - 2136 Words

Executive Summary: This report is about operational aspects. We have selected Hannan Prints, the manufacturing firm to analyse the supply chain. This paper scrutinize the crucial aspects of Hannan prints supply chain network, its plans and the implementation of strategy. By putting into practice different supply chain approaches, the firm will increase the benefits of supply chain network. In this report we have focused on supply chain inventory management and technology selection practices and how it is beneficial for the firm. In the firm operations are linked with different strategies. For example the change in supply chain has an effect on inventory management as well as technology selections. At the end we have given some†¦show more content†¦Flexibility saves time, maintains dependability and it accelerate responses. The low cost is attractive as no one likes to pay more. Hannan print always tries to reduce costs by proving quality of products or services, by speedy work, dependability and flexibility. They manage inventory and use proper resources that save time and money. Theoretical Framework: First of all, Hannan Print makes sure that all the staffs are encouraged and they contribute to the process. Secondly, it examines and improves operations practices on a regular basis. Further more, they monitor and improve service quality which they provide to customers. Not only that, but they are also working hard to replace the product as per customer’s requirements in order to save time and cost. Lastly with a view to provide faster and safer service the company working very hard to keep the premises clean and tidy all the time particularly the storage area as it is the part form where the goods are delivered. The company has good arrangement of working departments. For example they have packing and despatching department so close that they can transfer the goods in between those department very easily. This is the time saving and cost saving approach adopted by the company. Supply chain management and inventory management are also important parts of operation management. Supply chian management is the management that assists in finding solutions, grabbingShow MoreRelatedOperation Management--Ikea1925 Words   |  8 PagesIKEA History and Company Information IKEA retailing with its Sweedish roots, is based on a franchise system. Inter Ikea system BV is located in Delft, the Netherland being the owner and franchiser of the concept IKEA. ( The company aims to sell furnitures for 10 to 30 percent less then other stores ( source - stevension ). Every Ikea employee still follows the vision quotes of Ingvar Kampard to create a better everyday life for many people. During 2010 global sales as reportedRead MoreOperation Management on Ikea1851 Words   |  8 Pagesobjective of writing this report is to identity and analyzes operation system applied in IKEA, the well-known low cost yet high quality home of furnishing. Function, process and strategy of IKEA operation system will be accessed to identity the core competency that lead to the successfulness of IKEA in the world. Besides, other purpose in complete this report is to analyze the strength and weakness of operation system in IKEA. Operation management is procedure where processes of production or deliver goodsRead MoreOperation Management Ikea6167 Words   |  25 Pagesfollowing assignment is based on operations managements within IKAE. The aim of this unit is to analyse the operations functions within the organisation by understanding strategic operations management, the operations process and planning and control. â€Å"Operations management is an area of business that is concerned with the production of goods and services, and involves the responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient and effective. It is also the management of resources, the distributionRead MoreIKEA operations management4810 Words   |  20 PagesOperations Management Critical Evaluation of Relevant Issues - IKEA case ï ¿ ½ TABLE OF CONTENTS 2Executive Summary ï ¿ ½ 2Introduction ï ¿ ½ 2Company profile and Situational Analysis ï ¿ ½ 3Growth and profitability ï ¿ ½ 5Culture ï ¿ ½ 5Goals ï ¿ ½ 5Competitors ï ¿ ½ 5SWOT analysis ï ¿ ½ 6PESTLE Analysis ï ¿ ½ 6Political Analysis ï ¿ ½ 6Economic Analysis ï ¿ ½ 6Technology Analysis ï ¿ ½ 7Sociological Analysis ï ¿ ½ 7Legal Analysis ï ¿ ½ 7Environmental Analysis ï ¿ ½ 7Input-Transformation-Output ï ¿ ½ 8Corporate Objectives ï ¿ ½ 9Quality ï ¿ ½ 10SpeedRead MoreIkea Operations Management2832 Words   |  12 PagesOperations Management:IKEA IKEA’s BUSINESS IDEA ( â€Å"We shall offer a wide range of well-designed, functional home furnishing products at prices so low that as many people as possible will be able to afford them. Introduction At the outset, it may be useful to characterise IKEA in terms of the characteristics of demand (also known as the four Vs, see Slack et al. p 20). First, IKEA is clearly a high volume operation – as indeed most international retailers are – which lendsRead MoreIkea Operations Management3070 Words   |  13 Pages Profile: ikea IKEA is the world’s most successful mass-market retailer, selling Scandinavian-style home furnishings and other house goods in 230 stores in 33 countries and hosting 410 million shoppers per year. An acronym for founder Ingvar Kamprad and his boyhood home of Elmtaryd, Agunnaryd, IKEA began operating in Sweden in 1943 and continues its original ethos based upon cost obsession fused with design culture. No design, no matterRead MoreHow Does Ikea Approach Operations Management?6114 Words   |  25 PagesThe main purpose of this paper is to focus on the how IKEA Company approached its operation management. Particularly, it covers the following: how the company establish and manage customer requirements, secondly how does these customers requirements used for the company’s product and services, then, third covers the operational systems and processes it used in its operation, fourth consists of capacity planning, process layout, and product services/scheduling, inventory a nd projects were managedRead MoreThe Operation Strategies And Cost Leadership1399 Words   |  6 PagesSummary This business report discusses and explores the operation strategies and cost leadership of both IKEA and Fruity fro-yo and how it relates to business operations. The success of the business will also be assessed through the identified operations strategies that each of the businesses applies into their operations. This results in increased operations efficiency, which is discussed within this business report. Strategic role of management - Cost leadership Cost leadership: Cost leadershipRead MoreIkea s Market Tool For The Retail Giant Essay970 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction: IKEA is a multinational group of companies, specialized in designs and sells home furniture (ready to assemble). They also sell accessories, bathroom kitchen items and lately they have offered food market in their retail stores around the world. It was founded by Ingvar Kamprad who born in southern Sweden in 1926 and who was listed as one of the world s richest people in 2013. The company is known by its modern (simplicity) design, cost control, operation details and continues productRead MoreCase Study : Global Enterprise Ikea1392 Words   |  6 Pagesenterprise IKEA has expanded from its humble beginning in Älmhult, Sweden to become the world’s largest home furnishings retailer with 393 stores worldwide and 915 million visitors annually. IKEA’s simplistic vision inspired by its Swedishness aims to provide as many people as possible with affordable, well designed, high quality, functional home furnishings that impress consumers, competitors and companies alike. T his philosophy has resulted in very effective and efficient operations due to IKEA’s

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Happiness Is A Feeling Or Feeling Of Accomplishment

What is happiness? A feeling or euphoria or a feeling of accomplishment, perhaps both? Is happiness something we can create or something that appears to us when we need it most? I feel that happiness is something that is unique to each person. What fills me with inner joy might not for others and vice versa. Happiness is subjective, but one thing I think everyone will find is that a part of their happiness is found in growing as a person. Life begins at the end of your comfort zone and maybe happiness is found there too! For me, happiness is best achieved when I am growing as a person. Working through obstacles that have come up in my path, expanding my horizons through meeting new people, or learning something new in a class. I have come to see that when I push myself out of my comfort zone (physically or emotionally), this is where I find happiness. Reaching the edge of your comfort zone can be done through many things. One example of when I have felt truly happy is during travels. This can be travels to another state or travel in other countries. When one are traveling, there is constant growth. There are different obstacles that result from each new adventure. Plans for travel can be made, but in my experience, travel never goes according to the plan and that is its beauty. One time, in Peru, I ended up having to ride an overnight bus, then take a taxi to a hostel, then take another taxi to the airport. At the time I was eighteen, with very flawed Spanish, and in aShow MoreRelatedPursuit of Happiness647 Words   |  3 Pages25 April 2014 Authentic Happiness We began this course with the question â€Å"What is happiness? and Can we all achieve authentic Happiness? In our life we are taught many things, but we are not taught how to achieve our own happiness. Over the last five weeks we truly learned what happiness is and I believe we all can achieve authentic happiness in our life. In Authentic Happiness, Martin Seligman uses happiness and well being as the terms to describe the goals of Positive Psychology. The desiredRead MoreAnalysis Of Congratulations By Post Mamince716 Words   |  3 Pagesâ€Å"Congratulations† by Post Malone is one of my favorite songs, being when I listen to it my thoughts and feelings associated with the lyrics are proudness, and happiness of my accomplishments, in addition, the thoughts that arise when listening to this song are about my journey so far in my life, and past experiences. As an illustration, in the verse in the song â€Å"Congratulations† by Post Malone â€Å"I dreamed it all ever since I was young. They said I wouldn’t be nothing. Now they always saying congratulations†Read MoreThe Top Five Personal Values845 Words   |  4 Pagesare love, freedom, family security, equality, and recognition. These values all share the theme that they involve other people consider other people s thoughts. The bottom five values I consider to be the least important are having a sense of accomplishment, union with God, pleasure, achievement, and dollar reward. These values appear to be more individualistic values. The bottom 5 values are still important in life, however, they personally appear to be less morally important. Personal values areRead MoreThe Search for Happiness Essay1026 Words   |  5 Pages The search for happiness has been one of the greatest driving forces over the ages. Defined as an active or passive sense of pleasure or satisfaction, happiness drives individuals to accomplish a number of fulfilling activities in their lives. Thus an evaluation of meanings attached to happiness provides insight on how an individual maximizes their pleasure. Concepts of positive-psychology provide an explanation of what is happiness and show a number of activities that enhance contentment. NajemyRead More The Simple Pleasures of Life Bring Happiness Essay785 Words   |  4 PagesWashington Happiness is not something ready made. It comes from your own actions. -- Dalai Lama An emotion is an intense feeling. Happiness is one of the many emotions humans experience. It may perhaps be the most important feeling a person can have and it is the one feeling everyone strives to achieve, yet strangely, for the most part, people seem to only get a glimpse of it. Pleasurable satisfaction, a state of well-being and contentment are the more outstanding elements of happiness. HappinessRead MoreHappiness Is A Feeling And A Choice995 Words   |  4 PagesHappiness is a feeling and a choice rather than a state of being. Happiness comes within us, we chose to be satisfied or not. People that are optimistic compared to others that are not, are happier and care free. When we are happy, it is considered a moment of perfection, of joyfulness. Happiness does not all come at once, nor does it stay, happiness comes one moment at a time. People usually say, â€Å"I’ll be happy when†¦.† Individuals are picking and choosing when to be happy. We are so fort unate toRead MoreThe Psychology Of Happiness By Saberi Roy Essay1356 Words   |  6 PagesThe Psychology of Happiness By Saberi Roy | Submitted On September 11, 2011 Recommend Article Article Comments Print Article Share this article on Facebook Share this article on Twitter Share this article on Google+ Share this article on Linkedin Share this article on StumbleUpon Share this article on Delicious Share this article on Digg Share this article on Reddit Share this article on Pinterest Expert Author Saberi Roy A lot has been written about happiness and from psychology to philosophyRead MoreImportance Of Happiness In My Life913 Words   |  4 PagesWhen I think about what makes me happy, I often reflect on my greatest accomplishments and my most competitive situations. Having competition in my life is what strives me to do my best. When I excel through any situation, it brings me great joy. I often see my happiness coming from competitive situations in my academic and sporting events. With my happiness coming from my two most competitive activities; I know that if I put all that I can into a situation, I can leave knowing I did the best I couldRead MoreSuccess Is Within The Individual Mind And Expectations907 Words   |  4 Pageswhen they can admire what their hard work has given them. For some, happiness is all that matters. Happiness is achieved in many ways, and it does not always involve money. A person can feel successful without a lot of money, at all. For example, feeling loved is something that makes everyone happy. Many believe that without love life is not thoroughly complete. An individual’s line of work can also affect how happy they are, feeling that it is more important to enjoy work and get less money than itRead MoreThe Hypnopaedic Slogan Asks, Should there be Hardship and Misery in Life?815 Words   |  3 Pagesbetter to go through life just being happy or to have the ability to experience the hardships and misery of a true life (Huxley 77). As Bernard Marx and Helmholtz Watson observe the society, they realize their opposition of simulated happiness and their yearning for feeling. Through the understanding of the corrupt society and their own beliefs, the men begin to understand who they are and what matters to them to rise above the power of the world controllers. The society members controlled by decisions

Friday, December 13, 2019

Rebirth of Art, Religion and Education in Europe Free Essays

The â€Å"rebirth† of art, religion, and education in Europe is known as the Renaissance. During this time of rebirth, Renaissance thinkers dismissed the medieval period as a dark age of worthlessness. Instead, a style of classical age inspired a respect for order, perspective, proportion, and principles to the artist’s work. We will write a custom essay sample on Rebirth of Art, Religion and Education in Europe or any similar topic only for you Order Now The Renaissance also had a time of rebirth in people’s religion and beliefs. The people became closer to God and began to worship Him in their own ways. There was a drastic change in education during this time also. A push for the citizen to become ducated became a big deal. Books were given out, any many libraries were developed in an attempt to educate their people(Bowman 325-330). The Renaissance truly changed the art work, religion, and education throughout Europe. The European art emerged from its medieval precedents during the course of the thirteenth century. Before this time European art work were based on fixed, conventional forms art. This showed figures as stiff and flat; it showed the objects as unrealistic and lifeless. The artwork did not show great detail. Landscapes were decorative but unrealistic. The artist no longer worked only on small paintings but broadened his work to masterpieces. Masterpieces would be a piece of art that sometime would take an artist his whole life to complete. Their masterpieces would be placed in cathedrals, on buildings and would cover entire walls and ceilings. Many of the paintings would tell a story, often from the Bible. The artist would spend years working to finish his masterpieces. Often he would die before completing the paintings all the The status of artists rose as they began to work more for nobility and the wealthy. No longer anonymous, artists developed personal styles and experimented adventurously with new techniques(â€Å"Renaissance† 1989). The use of color also was changed through the Renaissance. Europe was going through a time of dark colors and lifeless paintings. Scholars of this time knew that the color and paintings had to be changed. They knew that the painting had to liven up. They chose to develop new colors, colors that were brighter and full of life. The artist chose colors that would draw attention to their They also knew that they should adopt techniques to ake their work more realistic looking. Techniques such as perspective, proportion, and size was adopted. They would make their paintings appear as you would see them in real life, as if you were looking at the object not a The artwork that was produced took massive amounts of time. The artist would complete very few amounts of large jobs in his life time. Often a job would be to paint a cathedral. This included the ceilings, altar, walls, and the floor. The artist would spend countless years completing his job to perfection(Murray and Murray 12-14). The artwork was spread throughout Europe by paintings, sculptures and buildings. Artist would be well-known for their paintings. A patron would hire an artist and ask him to create a series of paintings or sculptures. The artist would be paid a great deal if he was loyal and worked hard for his patron(Murray and Murray 14). Artwork went trough a great change, but this wouldn’t be the only perspective that would be changed during the Renaissance. Religion also changed a great deal during the Renaissance. During the Dark Ages, which was the time eriod directly before the Renaissance, people began to drift away from Christianity. The Dark Ages sent many people into a time of depression. Artists sought ways to help people in their religious quest. They often would center their work around a religious theme. Their works would tell of Bible stories or pictures from the Bible. Religion became popular throughout Europe, and people began to worship on a regular basis. They would often visit the cathedrals many times a day to pray. People began to have a new respect for religion through artwork, writing, and song(â€Å"Renaissance† 1999). The cathedrals were really important to the people of Europe. The cathedrals were a magnificent sight to the people, and they thought that they cathedrals were a main part of worship. They often had lectures based on the stories that were told on the walls, floors, and ceilings of the cathedrals. The cathedrals were kept open by donations from families, similar to the offertory given in today’s society. Many of the families had a pew in the cathedrals dedicated to their families. The cathedrals were a main part of the worship of the people during this time(â€Å"Renaissance† 1999). Education also changed a great deal during the Renaissance. Books were written by authors during the Dark Ages, but to publish them one had to write the entire book over and over again because there was not a way in which to make copies easily. The Renaissance would change this forever. The scholars knew that to educate people, one had to come up with a way to distribute books. To write them over took too much time, and they needed a quicker and more effective way. The printing press was soon adopted by the people. In printing press, the letters in the book were laced on wooden blocks and a page was laid on the table. After all the letters formed all the words and were in place, the next occurred. Printers would then pour ink onto the blocks and stamp the pages. The words would be printed out on the page. After this was repeated for all the pages, they were gathered and bound together in a book. This made books become more popular and affordable by common people. Through this, libraries were formed, and people could obtain books easier. This allowed people to become more educated and literate(â€Å"Renaissance† 1999). The Renaissance was indeed a remarkable time period throughout Europe. It changed Europe a great deal and will be remembered throughout the future. Europe was suffering before this period and was in desperate need of a reformation. The Renaissance gave Europe just what it needed, a rebirth. Art work, religion, and education thrived through this period. The paintings and sculptures, in particular, were remarkable and illustrate great talent, â€Å"Renaissance is a word which is generally understood, but which few people would care to define very closely† (Murray 7). How to cite Rebirth of Art, Religion and Education in Europe, Papers

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Current Factors and Risks Affecting Wallis Drilling

Question: Discuss about the Current Factors and Risks Affecting Wallis Drilling. Answer: Introduction Wallis Drilling Company is among the top companies in the world that have been providing drilling services for mining of minerals. Wallis Drilling has been operating for 52 years. Wallis Drilling is a private company that has the most efficient and advanced machines that can work on any terrain in Australia and other international countries (Wallis Company 2015, par. 1). With a sufficient number of competent employees, the services offered are world class. Even though returns are promising, there are some risks that are associated with Wallis Drilling that is significant for the survival of the company. Wallis Drilling company is affected by some international risks; the risks include; commercial risk, cross-cultural risk, country risk and the currency risk. Application of the theory to Wallis Drilling Commercial risk revolves around operational problems that are the issues that are associated with the day to day activities of the company. The operational problems may be the lack of liquid cash or the inability to settle the creditors. The other issue associated with commercial risk is the aspect of timing. A business may enter into an international trade at a time that the economic conditions are straining and thus little profits are earned at the end. In addition, the competition may be very stiff from the already progressed competitors thus making it extremely hard for the company that has not adopted some specific procedures (Burgess-Limerick 2010, p. 53).Lastly, a company may have adopted a strategy that is imperative for its for survival, but poor implementation of the strategy due to factors such as an incapable management can pose a great threat to companies such as Wallis Drilling. Currency risk is another problem that affects Drilling Company. The fact that most of such companies operate internationally is a major factor. Companies need to import or export machinery and equipment for their operations (Tenfelde 2016, p. 5). The prices of the drilling rigs are affected by the currency exchange rate in the international market. There are times that a company may fetch more or less in the same market. The fluctuation in prices of the commodities leads to losses. Currency risks are uncontrollable for they are influenced by externalities or economic conditions. Losses are the greatest worry for Wallis Drilling because of the instances of inflation and international taxation. Country risk majorly revolves around the current situations in the operating country. Companies that are operating internationally face the problems of unstable countries. When there is war in a country, there is no way that a company can be able to carry out its activities normally. The employees will fear for their lives, and thus the operations must be ceased until peace is restored (Tenfelde 2016, p. 7). Economic conditions in a country are also a factor of concern. A country that the company has got a contract in is influenced by factors such as inflation and the ability of the company to honor the terms of the contract like payment of the fee required. Country risk affects some profits and the efficiency of operations. Lastly, a cross-cultural risk is depicted by the factors that are associated with interacting with new people. Most of the time, they interact with individuals that have different approaches to their way of living and decision making. The cultural differences greatly affect the rate at which employees are operating internationally get to adapt to the environment that they are operating in. Negotiation styles may also be different, and thus it may take some time before a contract is fully settled. Conversely, the disparities in the ethical standards may be a factor of concern. If the ethical standards are different, then disagreements may be experienced, and this could reduce the number of contracts attained. Justification of the risks affecting Wallis Drilling Wallis Drilling is a victim of the risks that are associated with international trade. To begin with, Wallis Company employees have experienced difficulties in mingling with different cultures, sometimes the employees have been received with hostility or failed to blend their culture with that of the host country (Boomhower 2014, p.12). It becomes difficult to work in a condition that you are not conversant with. Most of the employees have left the company because of the unconducive working environment. Losing skilled employees to the rival company creates a very stiff competition that most of the time puts a strain on the limited resources available in the company. Also, Wallis Drilling Company has experienced losses due to the low prices of iron in the market. Since the decline of the iron prices due to economic conditions, the operation costs have not been compensated by the expected profits. When the prices for the minerals reduce, most of the mining sites have to be closed by the managing companies. Wallis Drilling has to wait until the prices of the minerals appreciate. Operating internationally has called for sensitiveness when it comes to the foreign exchange rates. For Wallis drilling, they have the threat of experiencing losses when they export or import their drilling rigs (Burgess-Limerick 2010, p. 51).The prices of the equipment are affected by the international economic factors that are beyond the control of the company. Lastly, the inability to pay its creditors the amount they owe them when time elapses. It is certain that Wallis Company being a large company it has various needs that must be allocated to enough resources. To fund its activities, most of the time, the company has to borrow from lenders. In the case that a mine is closed down because of reasons such as low prices in the international market, it becomes tough to honor the promises that were made to the creditors. Wallis Drilling Company thus has the risk of being bankrupt or liquidated by the creditors in case it is unable to honor its creditors (Boomhower 2014, p.78). References Boomhower, J 2014, Drilling like there's no tomorrow: Bankruptcy, insurance, and Environmental risk. EI@ Haas Working Paper, 254. Burgess-Limerick, R, Krupenia, V, Zupanc, C, Wallis, G Steiner, L 2010. Reducing Control selection errors associated with underground bolting equipment, Applied Ergonomics, vol. 41, no.3 pp.549-555. Tenfelde, AM., Esquivel, AO, Cracchiolo, AM, and Lemos, SE, 2016,Temperature change when drilling near the distal femoral physis in a skeletally immature ovine model, Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics, vol. 36, no.7, pp.762-767. Wallis Drilling. A Deeper Understanding, viewed 16 March 2017,

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Zeigarnik Effect Essay Example For Students

Zeigarnik Effect Essay University of California Peer Reviewed Title: Technostress in the Bionic Library Author: Kupersmith, John Publication Date: 01-01-1998 Publication Info: Postprints, UC Berkeley Permalink: http://escholarship. org/uc/item/1hc8s95x Citation: Kupersmith, John. (1998). Technostress in the Bionic Library. UC Berkeley: Retrieved from: http:// escholarship. org/uc/item/1hc8s95x Additional Info: John Kupersmith, Technostress in the Bionic Library . Originally published in Cheryl LaGuardia, ed. , Recreating the Academic Library: Breaking Virtual Ground, (New York: Neal-Schuman, 1998), pp. 3-47. Original Citation: John Kupersmith, Technostress in the Bionic Library. Originally published in Cheryl LaGuardia, ed. , Recreating the Academic Library: Breaking Virtual Ground, (New York: Neal-Schuman, 1998), pp. 23-47. Keywords: technostress, computer-related stress, technology, information systems, libraries Abstract: Computer-related stress, sometimes called â€Å"technostress,† affects sta ff and users as libraries offer more and more information through web sites and other remotely accessible electronic systems. We will write a custom essay on Zeigarnik Effect specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now This paper looks at technostress in the context of general stress theory, the Zeigarnik Effect, and the concept of sensemaking. It suggests ways in which library web developers, system designers and managers can reduce stress-related problems. 2008 updates: In the ten years since it was published, this paper has held up fairly well overall. Ive added some notes in the text to acknowledge conditions that have changed. I am grateful to the late Dr. Ilene Rockman, Manager of the California State University Libraries Information Competence Initiative and editor of Reference Services Review, for reviewing an earlier version of these updates. eScholarship provides open access, scholarly publishing services to the University of California and delivers a dynamic research platform to scholars worldwide. 1 The Bionic Library As readers of this volume are well aware, academic libraries are offering ncreasingly copious and diverse information in electronic form for local and remote access. These electronic services began with online library catalogs, have come to include bibliographic, full-text, and image databases, and, through the use of Internet tools such as the World Wide Web, are rapidly evolving into networked information spaces where users can identify and locate both printed and electronic items, retrieve the latter, and communicate via e-mail with expert guides (e. g. , the library staff). At the same time, the physical library continues to exist and even thrive, acquiring, organizing, and serving up large quantities of material in print and other non-electronic formats to substantial numbers of students and faculty. 2008: Thrive may not be the first word that springs to mind when you read this ARL document, which shows significant declines in reference and circulation transactions between 1995 and 2006 (http://www. arl. org/bm~doc/arl-br-256-stats. pdf). But the results are mixed, with attendance at group presentations increasing. In any case, stress on staff caused by declining library usage only reinforces that caused by technology. Thus it seems likely that academic libraries will continue to operate in both modes for some time. In coining the term bionic library to describe this hybrid concept, Harold Billings also alluded to the variety of reactions among potential users: To some scholars, the concept of an electronic library is paradise at hand; to others, it is absolutely frightening. I suggest that libraries are evolving as bionic libraries; organic, evolutionary, and electronically enhanced. Library collections will continue, perdurable with books and journals, but for some information sources available via remote workstations, the library will soon never sleep The old and new library systems will become assimilated and intertwined. The library is also bionic in the sense that it comprises not only facilities and formats, but also the essential human elements: users and staff. The success of any library system, after all, rests not on how well the design works on paper, in the abstract, but on how readily people will accept it and how effectively they can use it. And it is the biological components of the library that embrace or reject the new technologies; fulfill or frustrate the intentions of system designers; 2 and, especially in these times of change, experience the kind of anxiety and disorientation known as technostress. Stress and Technostress It hardly need be stated here that stress plays a critical and problematic role in modern life. Most modern stress theory is based on the work of Hans Selye, who defined three stages of reaction to stressors in the environment: alarm, resistance, and (in extreme cases where stress is serious and prolonged) exhaustion. 2] While stressors can be pleasant or unpleasant and stress can have positive effects—energizing a person, focusing attention, and stimulating behaviors of engagement and constructive adaptation—generally speaking it is the negative aspect of distress that merits our attention here. Symptoms of stress may be physical (e. g. , muscle tension, rapid heartbeat, dry mouth and throat, shallow breathing, headaches, gastric problems), cognitive (mental fatigue, inability to concentrate, poor judgment), affective (irritability, anxiety, mental fatigue, depression), or behavioral (impulsiveness, avoidance, withdrawal, loss of appetite, insomnia). Other researchers have emphasized the importance of the individuals appraisal of a potential stressor (a charging rhino thus eliciting a stronger reaction than a balky hypertext link), the degree to which the individual perceives that he/she can control the situation, personality differences and social support mechanisms that affect individuals reactions and adaptability, and the additive and cumulative effects of multiple stressors, including both negative and positive life events. Compounding the effects of multiple stressors is the phenomenon known as the Zeigarnik effect, which confirms a common human experience: interrupted tasks tend to be remembered better than completed tasks, especially when the individual is highly involved in the task and when the interruption is unplanned. This helps explain why staff and users of the bionic library, juggling a host of tasks, tend to carry around (and experience continuing stress from) their mental to-do lists, and why many find it diff icult to derive much satisfaction from completed tasks. Computers—or, more correctly, the ways in which people and organizations perceive, use, and relate to computers—are a potent source of stress, in the bionic library as elsewhere. Craig Brod, who introduced the term technostress in 1984, defined it as: a modern disease of adaptation caused by an inability to cope with the new computer technologies in a healthy manner. It manifests itself in two distinct and related ways: in the struggle to accept computer technology, and in the more specialized form of overidentification with computer technology. The primary symptom of those who are ambivalent, reluctant, or fearful of computers is anxiety. This anxiety is expressed in many ways: irritability, headaches, nightmares, resistance to learning about the computer, or outright rejection of the technology. Technoanxiety most commonly afflicts those who feel pressured—by employer, peers, or the general culture—to accept and use computers. 3 As Brod suggests, technostress takes several forms. Physical problems such as repetitive strain injuries, carpal tunnel syndrome, or back problems result from poor machine design or ergonomics. Computer anxiety comprises several problems, ranging from temporary confusion over how to use a system, to feelings of being rushed or dehumanized by the computer, to the distinct and more pervasive fear known as computerphobia or technophobia. At the other end of the attitudinal spectrum, those who are highly positive about and involved with computers also experience technostress. This effect can be quite subtle, as when people attempt to match their thinking and behavior to that of computer systems, especially when the interface design does little to adapt the underlying functions of the machine to human perceptions and behavior. Margaret Stiegs description of technostress underscores these effects: To use any technology successfully, the user is forced to conform to its patterns. The computer has profoundly altered our sense of time, a change with many aspects. It has made possible greater efficiency, therefore greater efficiency is now required. The computer requires immediate response. Many of us find the blinking cursor tyrannical and somewhat unnerving . The acceleration of work the computer has brought inhibits reflection, which in turn inhibits nderstanding. All of these characteristics impart a greater sense of urgency to the worker, a compulsion not to waste time, a consciousness of stress. 2008: Web interfaces have replaced the tyranny of the blinking cursor with multiple visible options waiting for a mouse click or other user action. This is a great improvement if the interface is well designed, but fast response times on high-speed networks and the growing number of computer-related tasks have combined to increase time pressure on most library users and staff. The same phenomenon is reflected in a recent handbook from a business consulting firm, intended to help corporate employees adjust to the fast-changing, computerized, global workplace: you need to operate with a strong sense of urgency. Accelerate in all aspects of your work, even if it means living with a few more ragged edges. Sure, high quality is crucial, but it must come quickly. You cant sacrifice speed. Learn to fail fast, fix it, and race on. Any change in a persons life, whether positive or negative, can produce stress. Technostress is especially likely to occur when new technologies are being introduced. Users of any computer system rely on their mental models to help them navigate among its various components and form assumptions about what will result from various actions. When the technology changes, the old models no longer function; the more complex and less obvious the technology, the more difficult it is to form new ones. As Karl E. Weick points out in his analysis of this sensemaking process: New technologies create unusual problems in sensemaking for managers and operators. For example, people now face the novel problem of how to recover from incomprehensible failures in computer systems. To solve this problem, people must 4 assume the role of failure managers who are heavily dependent on their mental models of what might have happened, although they can never be sure because so much is concealed. Complex systems make limited sense because so little is visible and so much is transient, and they make many different kinds of sense because the dense interactions that occur within them can be modeled in so many different ways. 12] These general aspects of technostress affect both staff and users of the bionic library; but because these groups are in somewhat different situations, they are treated separately in the following discussion. Effects on Staff By the nature of their work, librarians, like other members of the so-called helping professions, are subject to chronic stress, from multiple sources, in situations over which they have (or perceive that they have) little control. Several studies have documented this stress, and the related (though distinct and less common) phenomenon of burnout. The effects of technostress on librarians have been described by Bartlett, Bichteler, Champion, Clark and Kalin, Dobb, Hickey et al, Hudiberg, Moreland, and Sievert et al. The related problem of resistance to technological change in libraries has been addressed by Fine, Malinconico, Luguire, and Giesbrecht and McCarthy. 15] Although technostress affects all areas of the library, staff in public services such as reference and interlibrary loan are most directly impacted by the convergence of online catalogs, electronic search and delivery systems, and remote access. The type of stress affecting reference staff in the increasingly electronic library has been characterized as having four components: †¢ Performance anxiety: the feeling that one cannot use the systems effectively or help others to do so; particularly difficult for those whose high standards and ser vice ethic extend to perfectionism. Information overload: the sensation of being overwhelmed by the volume of new systems, databases, interfaces, and service initiatives. According to one recent estimate, reference staff in a university library deal with a minimum of 30-50 different types of software for various on-line, CD-ROM, and word processing uses. Role conflicts: uncertainty and confusion about ones proper role—novice or expert, intermediary or teacher, reactive helper or proactive change agent. Organizational factors: the disparity between increasing demand (volume of work, rising expectations of users) and static or decreasing resources (insufficient staff, poor training, scarce or outdated equipment). †¢ †¢ †¢ Common symptoms of technostress will vary among different staff members, but may include: feelings of isolation and frustration; negative attitudes toward new computer-based sources and systems; indifference to users computer-related needs (as in Its not my job to fix that printer); self-deprecating thoughts or statements about ones ability to cope; an apologetic attitude toward users; and a definition of self as not a computer person. Those most intensively involved with developing and managing the bionic library are under particular stress. They are required to combine creative, long-range, strategic thinking with intense analytical concentration on technical details—not a novel demand in library management, but certainly a taxing one. One librarian, working on a consortium project for electronic document delivery, recently commented: As I observe losing energy, missing deadlines, forgetting assignments, and otherwise generally melting down from overwork and stress of all kinds, Im beginning to wonder if were seeing the beginning of a serious trend where significant numbers of middle- and upper-level library managers (if not those on the front lines, too) are just going to collapse from exhaustion. 18] This description calls to mind the classic Type A behavior pattern, associated with coronary heart disease and described as an action-emotion complex that can be observed in any person who is aggressively involved in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time, and if required to do so, against the opposing efforts of other things or other persons. Effects on Users Computerized library catalogs, periodical indexes, text/data systems, and Internet access are generally popular with s tudents and faculty, especially with frequent users. 20] However, while technostress as such has not been formally studied among users of these systems as it has in other populations, there is ample evidence that users often do not understand the systems or use them well. Many searches in online catalogs produce zero results or very large results. Users are often unable to reformulate their search strategies effectively, and most do not use the systems built-in help features. 2008: Web search logs show the same patterns, plus a pervasive failure to distinguish whether a search box leads to the library catalog, a site-specific search, or a web search engine. Cognitive dissonance and stress occur when users get results that dont conform to their expectations. Unsuccessful searches, of course, may result from several factors: conceptual mistakes in search formulation, typographical errors, or items not being in the database; but whatever the causes, the stress contributing to and resulting from such performance problems detracts from the success of the bionic library. When considering the users situation, we should remember that myths of the ivory tower notwithstanding, students and faculty tend to lead stressful lives. 22] Like the library staff, they bring a certain amount of baggage to the terminal. However, unlike most staff, users have a convenient (if potentially self-damaging) means of stress reduction at their disposal: unless they are specifically required to use a certain system, 6 they can simply walk away and opt to use other sources. The often-quoted Mooers Law is relevant here: An information retrieval system will tend not to be used whenever it is more painful and troublesome for a customer to have information than for him not to have it. Like the traditional print-based library, which demands literacy and familiarity with various cultural cues, the bionic library presents special difficulties—and extra stress—to users who are not accustomed to computers and online retrieval or have specific needs that may not be met by standard user interfaces. Any discussion of user group characteristics should bear in mind the danger of drawing erroneous conclusions from narrowly-focused studies, the problem of reinforcing negative images through stereotyping, the continuing spread and diffusion of computer knowledge, and above all the importance of individual differences. 25] The research literature on gender and computer use discourages facile generalizations, but there is evidence that the stress and negative attitudes sometimes attributed to women as computer users may be more a matter of computa tional reticence, a reaction to a traditionally maledominated computer culture and to system designs that emphasize autonomy rather than connectedness, competition rather than communication. In this sense, the networked nature of the bionic library appears to offer considerable promise. 26] Users from various cultures—particularly those with limited English-language skills or whose socioeconomic background has precluded contact with computers—naturally tend to respond to system cues in terms of their own preconceptions; system design and terminology should be carefully evaluated to reduce misunderstandings. Elderly users and those with disabilities may require special considerations in ergonomics and displays, but again this is an area where individual differences are paramount. .ub2eba982a7ca975fbb62ddb024cb3245 , .ub2eba982a7ca975fbb62ddb024cb3245 .postImageUrl , .ub2eba982a7ca975fbb62ddb024cb3245 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ub2eba982a7ca975fbb62ddb024cb3245 , .ub2eba982a7ca975fbb62ddb024cb3245:hover , .ub2eba982a7ca975fbb62ddb024cb3245:visited , .ub2eba982a7ca975fbb62ddb024cb3245:active { border:0!important; } .ub2eba982a7ca975fbb62ddb024cb3245 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ub2eba982a7ca975fbb62ddb024cb3245 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ub2eba982a7ca975fbb62ddb024cb3245:active , .ub2eba982a7ca975fbb62ddb024cb3245:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ub2eba982a7ca975fbb62ddb024cb3245 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ub2eba982a7ca975fbb62ddb024cb3245 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ub2eba982a7ca975fbb62ddb024cb3245 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ub2eba982a7ca975fbb62ddb024cb3245 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ub2eba982a7ca975fbb62ddb024cb3245:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ub2eba982a7ca975fbb62ddb024cb3245 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ub2eba982a7ca975fbb62ddb024cb3245 .ub2eba982a7ca975fbb62ddb024cb3245-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ub2eba982a7ca975fbb62ddb024cb3245:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Bioethics EssayOne clearly disadvantaged group consists of new users, a sizable population on any campus and one that is replenished every year; relevant design strategies include providing a novice mode (discussed below) and choosing system terminology to match users natural language. Those who design, manage, and teach electronic information systems should certainly be aware that users will be starting from many different points in their background knowledge and attitudes. The individual using networked information systems from outside the library is often described in the literature as a remote user, but for this discussion it is worth noting that from the users point of view, he/she is central and the library is remote. Furthermore, for any individual, the virtual library means not only the local librarys online system, but also other libraries systems, and in fact the sum total of information resources to which he/she can connect in some meaningful way. 27] 2008: In my experience, participants in focus groups and usability studies often fail to make distinctions among various interconnected online systems, such as the library catalog, web pages, and vendor-provided databases. This is not a mistake on their part. Its a natural perception for non-experts, and designers need to address it. 7 Users accessing a remote system from their office or home computers have the advantage of familiarity with their equipment, but may encounter problems if it is not compatible with the system being used. If they are new or infrequent users of the system, they may have special difficulties in understanding its structure and procedures. These users may also suffer from feelings of isolation as well as from the lack of information and feedback they could gain in a physical library through direct contact with other users or staff. Whether they are dialing in from home, connecting from a computer lab, or sitting at an OPAC terminal, people face a number of problems in using the complex of information systems that make up the bionic library. Most fundamental is the need to locate and identify the library itself. While it is generally easy to find the library building on a college or university campus, the corresponding electronic library may have several components (including a dial-up catalog/database system, a CD-ROM network, standalone page-image workstations, gopher and World Wide Web sites), each with a different point of contact and some not linked with the rest. In a sense, end-users in the 1990s are going through what library staff began to experience in the 1980s, adapting to one new system after another—and often to several at once. 008: The mix of ingredients has changed somewhat, but the virtual library still remains fragmented. Even with most access being through the web, the library may still have multiple entry points, including alternative home pages, a presence on course pages, and perhaps an interface for mobile devices not to forget the tangle of networked and non-networked CD-ROMs. When the us er does connect to one of these systems, he/she may have a hard time determining what it will do, or whether it is the best resource for the purpose, especially if the system is new or unfamiliar. Even in a well-organized multi-database system, users may not be aware of what file they are using; for example, 37% of students using a periodical index in one such system believed they were using the library catalog. The Internet offers further challenges; an academic librarian recently commented that: Information overload and search anxiety are two common problems here. The faculty feel overwhelmed by the information they have access to, and the disorganization of the Internet is a major factor for most of them not using it. They have learned to find information by browsing most of the time, but the Internet is too large to browse. A computer lab assistant in a large university library made a similar observation about student users: The Internet just scares people to death. The Internet is so big and you get so lost. Once a user has settled on a particular information system, its interface may present further problems. Commands, error messages, and other terminology used in the system may not be understandable. Available commands and features may not be visible at a particular point. Depending on the system design, the user may feel—and may in fact be—unable to control the system properly. Irene Sever provides a useful metaphor when she portrays the experience of new users of electronic information systems as a form of culture shock: Todays library, and even more that of tomorrow, has many characteristics of an exotic, alien environment: its language is unfamiliar and specialized and ev okes incorrect associations. The form taken by the equipment creates difficulties which must be overcome: screen versus printed page, he need to press combinations of keys of baffling complexity instead of running a finger and an eye down an index page, the difficulty of mastering the order of functions necessary to run a simple user-friendly program . An electronic library cannot be learned through instant coaching on which keys to press or even through the diligent perusal of a manual. What is necessary is to grow into an electronic library environment gradually through socialization as well as through education. 33] Reading this passage, librarians experienced in reference or user education will recognize similarities to the situation of first-time or infrequent users in a physical library. In fact, while the specific problems may differ, the phenomenon of library anxiety is not fundamentally different in this new setting. Implications for System Design As quoted above, Craig Brod defined technostress as a modern disease of adaptation caused by an inability to cope with the new computer technologies in a healthy manner. The disease metaphor is useful, but it can be misleading. Computer technologies are not inherently healthy or right; users who have difficulty adapting to them are not inherently diseased or wrong. We can do much to help the users adjust, but even more important is proper system design. Traditional mainframe-based information systems have generally been developed by large organizations: libraries, data processing centers, and commercial vendors. The designers have often been systems analysts who—in the best case—received feedback on user behavior from sources closer to the front lines, such as transaction logs, online user comments, customer groups, and usability labs. This top-down methodology has produced mixed results, the most successful systems coming from situations where user feedback was copious, frequent, and highly valued. Recent developments in networking and client/server systems offer the potential for different kinds of products and development processes. The Gateway project at Ohio State University pioneered the concept of a library-developed front end tailored to students research needs. Moving beyond the limitations of any single interface, the Z39. 50 standard permits the end-user to select from a variety of client software programs, much as he/she might choose a word processor, and use them to access a variety of information servers. The various Internet tools, particularly the graphical browsers now available for use on the World Wide Web, allow publicservice librarians—and even users themselves—to design and construct front-end access systems 9 of various kinds. Web pages that combine instructional text and graphics with links to various information systems can offer flexible structures, helpful guidance, affective support, cultural cues, and communication mechanisms, making it easier for users to adapt to the new environment of the bionic library. 2008: Its now clear that for all their advantages, web interfaces dont automatically produce understanding on the part of the user. Just to cite one example, the library where I work is now offering a hands-on orientation to its own web site. Like many other libraries, its also redesigning that site with usability as a prime goal. On a larger scale, a consortium of federal agencies led by the National Science Foundation is currently supporting Digital Libraries Initiative projects as six universities, some of which aim to investigate usability as well as technical issues. Whatever the interface, the same essential design principles apply—clarity and consistency of presentation; visibility and predictability of functions; naturalness of commands and actions; and keeping the user in control. The designer has some basic tasks to perform in order to reduce stress for the user. The first is to develop and communicate the system image which the user will need to internalize in order to function effectively. The more accurate and memorable the users mental model of the system, the less stress he/she will experience in staying oriented and carrying out various tasks. The primary tools for conveying this kind of information—welcome screens, menus, screen headers, logos and other graphical cues—provide a consistent network of verbal and visual anchor points throughout the system, taking advantage of the users powers of long-term memory and pattern recognition. A basic decision at this point involves whether to give the user a choice of novice vs. expert modes (the former offering a limited selection of options). This is one way to address the needs of the inexperienced user, but forcing people to choose between the two may actually increase stress, especially if the novice mode actually cannot access certain commands or functions. A command-driven/menu-augmented design offers more flexibility in that a basic set of options can be displayed to all users, with advanced commands or shortcuts available to any user and explained in the systems online and printed documentation. 41] 2008: This was written with text-based systems in mind, but the same principle can be put to work in a graphical interface. For example, a web site may offer novice users a set of basic choices (Find Books, Find Articles, etc. ) while providing other links calculated to attract the experienced user (such as the name of the library catalog). As suggested above, the ele ctronic library presents users with many of the same cognitive problems as the traditional print-based library. Users must navigate through a different kind of 10 space—defined in this case by screens, words, links, icons, and graphics rather than walls—but the wayfinding process is similar. The natural transfer of imagery from the physical library into the electronic library is suggested by many users continuing fondness for the term electronic card catalog, and by the proliferation of commercial online systems based on metaphors such as a virtual desktop, home, or town. Thus architectural concepts, such as rooms, maps, and signposts, are also appropriate tools for library system designers, whether or not the final interface is presented as a virtual building. 2008: An architectural mindset is still a good design tool, but web design has evolved its own set of norms that make virtual building metaphors less necessary. Similarly, younger users are much more likely to perceive the library catalog as a search engine than as an electronic card catalog. An especially useful evaluation technique is to capture and study the comments of users, reflecting their awareness of and reactions to a system, much as designers will follow a naive user through a physical building, monitoring what the user is thinking and doing at various decision points. Once the design process moves into developing specific features, the principal stress-reducing task is to control complexity without dumbing down the system by hiding or omitting important functions. 2008: The state o f the art in user-centered design has advanced considerably since this was written. Web usability has become a discipline in itself, and its standard practice to conduct usability studies as part of a major library web site project. The traditional admonition to keep it simple presents only one side of the equation; if carried too far, it leads to an impoverished result. During prototype testing of Microsofts Bob operating-system interface, a novice user was shown some of the cartoon animals that serve as guides in the system. As the designer recalled, This guy was very emotional about it—he grabbed my arm. He said, Save all the money on the manuals, just give me this duck to always be there and tell me what to do. There may be a future for social computing interfaces in the bionic library, but if a bird is in charge, perhaps it should at least be an owl. As Donald Norman has pointed out, one of the prime features of any designed artifact is visibility: Make things visible on the execution side of an action so that people know what is possible and how actions should be done; make things visible on the evaluation side so that people can tell the effects of their actions. The designer walks a tightrope between overcomplexity and oversimplicity in developing displays of search results, hypertext links, or other information. Disorganized complexity is an obvious cause of stress, but the temptation to simplify and use low screen densities everywhere can lead to users missing important material or 11 having to page through multiple (though perhaps elegant-looking) screens. Edward Tufte of fers some useful guidance in this area: Confusion and clutter are failures of design, not attributes of information. And so the point is to find design strategies that reveal detail and complexity—rather than to fault the data for an excess of complication. Or, worse, to fault viewers for a lack of understanding. User interfaces with high information resolution are an appropriate match to human skills frequently optimal. If the task is contrast, comparison, or choice—as it so often is—then the more relevant information gracefully within eyespan, the better. Lowdensity displays, with screens scrolling scrolling scrolling, require users to rely on visual memory—a weak skill Low-information displays lead to breaking up of work into user-irritating micro-steps, with a consequent loss of coherence . A common question asked by users of data-thin screens is Where am I? Tuftes recommended solutions include layering and separation of data. In fact, the complexity of library catalogs and database systems generally requires that available commands be presented in layers, wi th a command available to call up a display of advanced or seldom-used functions. Likewise, search results are often presented in a series of increasingly detailed levels. Tufte also recommends arranging data in small multiples, laid out so that the user can readily see patterns. The prevailing design of World Wide Web pages shows a historical evolution from lengthy text paragraphs sprinkled with links, to greater reliance on list-type presentations, arranged either vertically, or horizontally with graphic separators. 008: The designers tool kit has further evolved to include pop-up, pull-down, and flyover menus, mouseover links, frames, etc. Obviously any of these tools can be used well or abused. The verbal elements of presentation are also worth considering. While we have come a long way from barking at the user with messages such as Invalid command code, designers should remember that users will experience less stress if the system speaks to them in a way that is, if not friendly, at least civil, and above all comprehensible. User errors are a prime source of stress, whether these are simple typos or the result of search strategies and assumptions that do not match those of the systems designers. Forgiveness should be a prime design goal, achieved through such means as providing multiple access points to items, offering both browse and keyword search options, trapping initial articles and other common errors, normalizing search input, accepting alternative command synonyms (including the NISO Common Command Language), and providing helpful prompts in case of zero results or large result sets. In 1994, the Research Libraries Groups Eureka system was enhanced with a package of changes collectively termed Do what I mean; these forgiveness features have reduced user errors by 80%. Implications for System Management 12 Like the bionic librarys designers, its managers can do much to reduce stress for users and staff. A prime goal in this area is coherence. As mentioned above, the electronic portion of a typical academic library presently resembles a loose aggregation of disparate elements rather than a tightly knit system. Whatever the manager can do to promote both the sense and the functional reality of a unified system—through judicious selection of resources, consolidation and linking of resource menus, and carefully presented publicity and instructions—will benefit both the students and faculty who use the system, and the staff who explain and interpret it. The greater control users feel over a system, the less stress they experience from it. This sense of control derives largely from the system design, but is also affected by how a system is managed. For example, incremental changes, announced both through advance publicity and at the point of use, are less likely to be disruptive than revolutionary changes made with no advance warning. 2008: My candidate for the Mt. Everest of system changes is the California Digital Librarys transition to new versions of the Melvyl catalog and 34 article databases. This process, involving intricate planning, user input from all nine campuses of the UC system, and a great deal of communication, took at least three years and was completed in 2003. .u409ac78c3be7e21c8d07f3a1d86d0741 , .u409ac78c3be7e21c8d07f3a1d86d0741 .postImageUrl , .u409ac78c3be7e21c8d07f3a1d86d0741 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u409ac78c3be7e21c8d07f3a1d86d0741 , .u409ac78c3be7e21c8d07f3a1d86d0741:hover , .u409ac78c3be7e21c8d07f3a1d86d0741:visited , .u409ac78c3be7e21c8d07f3a1d86d0741:active { border:0!important; } .u409ac78c3be7e21c8d07f3a1d86d0741 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u409ac78c3be7e21c8d07f3a1d86d0741 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u409ac78c3be7e21c8d07f3a1d86d0741:active , .u409ac78c3be7e21c8d07f3a1d86d0741:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u409ac78c3be7e21c8d07f3a1d86d0741 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u409ac78c3be7e21c8d07f3a1d86d0741 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u409ac78c3be7e21c8d07f3a1d86d0741 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u409ac78c3be7e21c8d07f3a1d86d0741 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u409ac78c3be7e21c8d07f3a1d86d0741:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u409ac78c3be7e21c8d07f3a1d86d0741 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u409ac78c3be7e21c8d07f3a1d86d0741 .u409ac78c3be7e21c8d07f3a1d86d0741-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u409ac78c3be7e21c8d07f3a1d86d0741:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Colonial America Religions EssayFor details, see CDLs AI Transition page (http://www. cdlib. org/inside/projects/a-i-trans/). A closely related goal is to humanize the technology as much as possible. As John Naisbitt predicted in 1982, The more high technology around us, the more the need for human touch. The high tech/high touch approach takes advantage of users natural tendency to relate to computers as if they were people. To this end, any text in a system—including banners, news screens, introductions, instructions, error messages, etc. —should be written in a direct, positive, natural tone. Wherever feasible, managers should implement a â€Å"comment† or â€Å"mailto† function, offering users a chance to send feedback. Even if it is not possible to reply to every comment, posting a frequently asked questions file will give users a sense of a dialogue with the machine, providing benefits that go beyond the information communicated. Training, documentation, and online help are often cited as key elements in supporting users. These devices are certainly essential and require careful design, even though they may be infrequently used. There is some evidence that human help at in-library terminal locations improves user performance and increases satisfaction. This is an expensive service to offer on a full-time basis, but some libraries have assigned reference desk staff to float through CDROM and OPAC areas during high-use periods, and some public libraries have begun using volunteer docents to provide this type of help. Managers of the bionic library can also take various actions to reduce stress for staff members. The most obvious is to equip staff not only with computers and network connections, but also with the necessary skills and competencies to function in the new environment. Roy Tennant points out that Instruction and training are the cornerstone of any effort to retool library 13 staff to meet the challenges and opportunities of electronic-based information. Managers can further the success of training through selection of appropriate methods, sensitivity to the individual starting points and learning styles of staff, and provision of sheltered space and time for learning. 54] Another important managerial task is to foster enthusiasm for the new information systems and a positive attitude toward change—something most effectively done by example. One of the best ways to overcome technostress is to learn, and one of the best ways to learn is to teach. The experience of library staff at The University of Texas at Austin, who volunteered to teach the Internet and other computer skills to several thousand users, suggests that aggressive involvement in such teaching can reduce the effects of stress and increase self-confidence as well as technical skills. The developers of this program have also contributed to stress reduction by fostering a culture in which both trainers and students are engaged in a joint learning experience, thus reducing the trainers fear of system glitches or difficult questions. Conclusion Technostress is part of the price we pay for living in a time of revolutionary and dramatic change. The bionic library embodies both print and electronics, with all the social and cultural structures that surround them: the old and the new ways of learning about the world and connecting with other people. This hybrid institution, full of new devices and continually under construction, makes many demands on its users. We can learn much from the stress that people naturally experience in this situation. The success of the bionic library will be determined not only by economics and technology, but also by the extent to which its designers and managers can shape it as a tool for human use. Notes Harold Billings, The Bionic Library, Library Journal 116 (October 15, 1991): 38-42. Reprinted in Harold Billings, Magic Hypersystems: Constructing the Information-Sharing Library (Chicago: ALA Editions, 2002) (http://tinyurl. om/6452ey). Hans Selye, The Stress Concept and Some of its Implications, in Vernon Hamilton and David M. Warburton, ed. , Human Stress and Cognition: An Information Processing Approach (Chichester; New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1979), 11-32. For an excellent review of stress theory and literature, see Gail Hackett and Susan Lonborg, Models of Stress, in Elizabeth M. Altm aier, ed. , Helping Students Manage Stress (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1983), 3-21. For a more recent update, see Ronald M. Doctor and Jason N. Doctor, Stress, in V. S. Ramachandran, ed. Encyclopedia of Human Behavior (San Diego: Academic Press, 1994), 4:311-323. 14 Reported by Bliuma Zeigarnik in 1927, this is described in F. L. Denmark, Zeigarnik Effect, in Raymond J. Corsini, ed. , Encyclopedia of Psychology, 2nd ed. (New York: John Wiley Sons, 1994), 3:593. Craig Brod, Technostress: The Human Cost of the Computer Revolution. (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1984), 16. John S. Craig, Managing Computer-Related Anxiety and Stress Within Organizations, Journal of Educational Technology Systems 22 (1993-94): 309-325; Amarjit S. Sethi, Denis H. J. Caro, and Randall S. Schuler, eds. , Strategic Management of Technostress in an Information Society (Lewiston, NY and Toronto: C. J. Hogrefe, Inc. , 1987). See also several studies by Richard A. Hudiburg and associates, including Measuring Technostress: Computer-Related Stress, Psychological Reports 64 (1989): 767-772, and Measuring Computer Users Stress: The Computer Hassles Scale, Psychological Reports 73 (1993): 923-929. Brett A. Cohen and Gordon W. Waugh, Assessing Computer Anxiety, Psychological Reports 65 (1989): 735-738; Carol R. Glass and Luanne A. Knight, Cognitive Factors in Computer Anxiety, Cognitive Therapy and Research 12 (1988): 351-366; Paula C. Morrow, Eric R. Prell, and James C. McElroy, Attitudinal and Behavioral Correlates of Computer Anxiety, Psychological Reports 59 (1986): 1199-1204. Mike Greenly, Computerphobia: The Fear That Keeps People Off-Line, The Futurist 22 (January-February 1988): 14-18; Richard A. Hudiburg, Relating Computer-Associated Stress to Computerphobia, Psychological Reports 67 (1990): 311-314. Margaret F. Stieg, Technology and the Concept of Reference, or, What Will Happen to the Milkmans Cow? , Library Journal 115 (April 15, 1990): 48. Price Pritchett, The Employee Handbook of New Work Habits for a Radically Changing World: 13 Ground Rules for Job Success in the Information Age (Dallas: Pritchett Associates, Inc, ), 10. Christine L. Borgman, Mental Models: Ways of Looking at a System, ASIS Bulletin 9 (December 1982): 38-39. Karl E. Weick, Technology as Equivoque: Sensemaking in New Technologies, in Paul S. Goodman, Lee S. Sproull, and Associates, Technology and Organizations (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1990), 1,2. Karen A. Becker, The Characteristics of Bibliographic Instruction in Relation to the Causes and Symptoms of Burnout, RQ 32 (Spring 1993): 346-357; Janette S. Caputo, Stress and Burnout in Library Service (Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1991); David S. Ferriero and Kathleen A. Powers, Burnout at the Reference Desk, RQ 21 (Spring 1982): 274-279; Mary Haack, John W. Jones, and Tina Roose, Occupational Burnout Among Librarians, Drexel Library Quarterly 20 5 (Spring 1984): 46-72. For a critical review, see David P. Fisher, Are Librarians Burning Out? , Journal of Librarianship 22 (October 1990): 216-235. Julie Bichteler, Technostress in Libraries: Causes, Effects, and Solutions, The Electronic Library 5 (October 1987): 282-87, and Human Aspects of High Tech in Special Libraries, Special Libraries 77 (Summer 1986): 121-28; Sandra Champion, Technostress: Technologys Toll, School Library Journal 35 (Novemb er 1988): 48-51; Katie Clark and Sally Kalin, â€Å"Technostressed Out? How to Cope in the Digital Age,† Library Journal 121 (August 1996), 3032; Linda S. Dobb, Technostress: Surviving a Database Crash, Reference Services Review 18 (1990): 65-68,48; Kate D. Hickey et al. , Technostress in Libraries and Media Centers, TechTrends 37 (1992): 17-21; Richard Hudiburg, â€Å"Technostress,† paper presented at ALA/ACRL Instruction Section program (July 8, 1996); Virginia Moreland, â€Å"Technostress and Personality Type,† Online 17 (July 1993), 59-62; MaryEllen Sievert et al. Investigating Computer Anxiety in an Academic Library, Information Technology and Libraries 7 (September 1988): 243-52. Sara F. Fine, Technological Innovation, Diffusion, and Resistance: An Historical Perspective, Journal of Library Administration 7 (Spring 1986): 83-108, and Human Factors and Human Consequences: Opening Commentary in Allen Kent and Thomas J. Galvin, eds. , Information Technology: Critical Choices for Library Decision-Makers (New York: Marcel Dekker, 19 82), 209-24; S. Michael Malinconico, Hearing the Resistance, Library Journal 108 (January 15, 1983): 111-13, and Listening to the Resistance, Library Journal 108 (February 15, 1983): 353-55; Wilson Luguire, Attitudes Toward Automation/Innovation in Academic Libraries, Journal of Academic Librarianship 8 (January 1983): 344-51; Walter Giesbrecht and Roberta McCarthy, Staff Resistance to Library CD-ROM Services, CD-ROM Professional 4 (May 1991): 34-38. John Kupersmith, Technostress and the Reference Librarian, Reference Services Review 20 (Summer 1992): 7-14,50. 17] Kirsten Klinghammer, Re: technostress, private e-mail message (March 31, 1995). Quoted by permission. Julie Blume Nye, Re: Virtual libraries - technostress? , private e-mail message (March 31, 1995). Quoted by permission. Meyer Friedman and Ray H. Rosenman, Type A Behavior and Your Heart (New York: Knopf, 1974), 84; quoted in Hackett and Lonborg, Models of Stress, p. 9. This passage might not be cited here had the author not seen a coll eague, involved in a high-profile database project, temporarily sidelined with chest pains. 20] Kenneth W. Berger and Richard W. Hines, What Does the User Really Want? The Library User Survey Project at Duke University, Journal of Academic Librarianship 20 (November 1994): 306-309; Karen Markey, Thus Spake the OPAC User, Information Technology and Libraries 2 (December 1983): 381-387; but see also Rachel Applegate, Models of User 16 Satisfaction: Understanding False Positives, RQ 32 (Summer 1993): 525-539. Christine L. Borgman, Why Are Online Catalogs Hard to Use? Lessons Learned from Information-Retrieval Studies, Journal of the American Society for Information Science 37 (1986): 387-400; Larry Millsap and Terry Ellen Ferl, Search Patterns of Remote Users: An Analysis of OPAC Transaction Logs, Information Technology and Libraries 12 (September 1993): 321-343; Patricia M. Wallace, How Do Patrons Search the Online Catalog When No Ones Looking? Transaction Log Analysis and Implications for Bibliographic Instruction and System Design, RQ 33 (Winter 1993): 239-252. Glenn P. Gray and Leon H. Rottmann, Perceptions of Stress in Undergraduate College Students, Journal of College and University Student Housing 18 (Winter 1988): 14-20; Dona M. Kagan and Vada Fasan, Stress and the Instructional Environment, College Teaching 36 (Spring 1988): 75-81; George V. Richard and Thomas S. Krieshok, Occupational Stress, Strain, and Coping in University Faculty, Journal of Vocational Behavior 34 (1989): 117-132; and Robert E. Seiler and Della A. Pearson, Dysfunctional Stress Among University Faculty, Educational Research Quarterly 9 (1984-85): 15-26. Calvin N. Mooers, Editorial: Mooers Law; or, Why Some Retrieval Systems Are Used and Others Not, American Documentation 11 (July 1960): ii. Mooers article actually concerns the pain and trouble of possessing and working with information; however, his law as stated does seem to apply as well to the difficulties of using the retrieval systems themselves. A good starting point for exploring this area is the section on Accommodation of Human Diversity in Ben Shneiderman, Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective HumanComputer Interaction, 2nd ed. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1992), 21-31. Christine L. Borgman, All Users of Information Retrieval Systems Are Not Created Equal: An Exploration into Individual Differences, Information Processing and Management 25 (1989): 237-251; Brenda Dervin, Users as Research Inventions: How Research Categories Perpetuate Inequities, Journal of Communication 39 (Summer 1989): 216-232. Sherry Turkle, Computational Reticence: Why Women Fear the Intimat e Machine, in Cheris Kramarae, ed. , Technology and Womens Voices: Keeping in Touch (New York and London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1988), 41-61. See also Robin H. Kay, An Examination of Gender Differences in Computer Attitudes, Aptitude, and Use, paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, April 20-24, 1992), ERIC document ED346848. For Internet resources on this topic, see Ellen Spertus, Women and Computer Science (http://people. mills. edu/spertus/Gender/gender. tml). As an example, 18% of the items gathered in preparation for this chapter were obtained directly from electronic sources: WWW and gopher sites, periodical index systems with e-mail and fax delivery of articles, and e-mail messages including a survey of PACS-L listserv subscribers. Of the print items obtained from four different libraries, approximately 80% were identified and located using online catalogs and computerized indexes, the rest through browsing. 17 Sally W. Kalin, Support Services for Remote Users of Online Public Access Catalogs, RQ 31 (1991): 197-213; Karen Weilhorski, Teaching Remote Users How to Use Electronic Information Resources. Public-Access Computer Systems Review 5 (1994): 5-20. Data gathered by the author from users on library terminals at the University of Texas at Austin. Remote users, having to select databases from menus, would likely be better oriented. Screen designs were subsequently modified to provide more prominent indication of the database being used. Margaret F. Riley, Re: Virtual libraries - technostress? , private e-mail message (March 31, 1995). Quoted by permission. Quoted in Mary Lynn Rice-Lively, Trip to Bountiful: Personal Snapshots of the Campus Computing Center, unpublished paper for graduate course at the University of Texas at Austin (June 9, 1994), 20. For a review of the extensive literature on such problems, see Martha M. Yee, System Design and Cataloging Meet the User: User Interfaces to Online Public Access Catalogs, Journal of the American Society for Information Science 42 (1991): 78-98. 33] Irene Sever, Electronic Information Retrieval as Culture Shock: An Anthropological Exploration, RQ 33 (Spring 1994): 336-41. Constance A. Mellon, Library Anxiety: A Grounded Theory and Its Development, College Research Libraries 47 (March 1986): 160-165. Rob Kling and Margaret Elliott, Digital Library Design for Usability, in Digital Libraries 94: Proceedings of the First Annual Conference on the Theory and Practice of Digital Libr aries (June 19-21, 1994, College Station, TX), accessed on the World Wide Web (http://www. csdl. tamu. du/DL94/paper/kling. html); Shneiderman, Designing the User Interface; Robert Waite, Making Information Easy to Use, ASIS Bulletin 9 (December 1982): 34-37. Philip J. Smith and Virginia Tiefel, The Information Gateway: Designing a Front-End Interface to Enhance Library Instruction, Reference Services Review 20 (Winter 1992): 37-48. As of this writing, a useful collection of pointers to Innovative Internet Applications in Libraries is being maintained by Ken Middleton at the Todd Library, Middle Tennessee State University (http://www. iltonlibrary. org/innovate. html). The Electronic Classroom of the Science and Engineering Library, University of California, San Diego (http://web. archive. org/web/*/http://sehplib. ucsd. edu/electclass/classroom. html), offers an exemplary set of course-specific home pages, many developed through partnerships between librarians and teaching facult y. 18 To access these projects via the World Wide Web, use: http://dli. grainger. uiuc. edu/national. htm http://www. dli2. nsf. gov/ Anyone involved in designing a system should read Donald A. Norman, The Psychology of Everyday Things (New York: Basic Books, 1988) and Things That Make Us Smart: Defending Human Attributes in the Age of the Machine (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1993). For a useful discussion of library catalog design principles and procedures, see Walt Crawford, The Online Catalog Book: Essays and Examples (New York: G. K. Hall, 1992), 49-82. Norman, The Psychology of Everyday Things, 189-191. For a specific instance, see John Kupersmith, UTCAT: Applying Design Principles to an Online Catalog, in Crawford, The Online Catalog Book, 507-520. 42] Roger M. Downs, Mazes, Minds, and Maps, in Dorothy Pollet and Peter C. Haskell, ed. , Sign Systems for Libraries: Solving the Wayfinding Problem (New York: Bowker, 1979), 17-32. For relevant discussions of navigation in hypertext systems, see Shneiderman, Designing the User Interface, 403-418; and Ben Ide, Hypertext and Hypermedia: The Effect on Libraries, Patrons, and Information Organization, undergraduate departme ntal honors thesis, School of Library Science and Instructional Technology, Southern Connecticut State University, April 1992 (http://www. lulu. com/content/186542). 43] For a discussion of these parallels, see Kristina Hooper, Architectural Design: An Analogy, in Donald A. Norman and Stephen W. Draper, ed. , User-Centered System Design: New Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction (Hillsdale, NJ and London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1986), 9-23; John Kupersmith, â€Å"YOU ARE HERE, But Where is That? : Architectural Design Metaphors in the Electronic Library,† in Finding Common Ground: Creating a Library of the Future Without Diminishing the Library of the Past, Proceedings of a conference in Cambridge, MA, March 30-31, 1996 (New York: Neal-Schuman, 1998). 44] Designer Karen Fries, quoted in Don Clark, How a Womans Passion and Persistence Made Bob, Wall Street Journal (January 10, 1995): B1. For a serious discussion, see Mark S. Ackerman, Providing Social Interaction i n the Digital Library, Digital Libraries 94 (http://www. cdsl. tamu. edu/DL94/position/ackerman. html). Norman, The Psychology of Everyday Things, 197-198. Edward Tufte, Envisioning Information (Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press, 1990), 53. 48] Edward Tufte, Visual Design of the User Interface (Armonk, NY: IBM Corporation, 1989). RLIN Forum at ALA Midwinter 1995, RLIN Focus (April 1995): 1. 19 John Naisbitt, Megatrends: Ten New Directions Transforming Our Lives (New York: Warner Books, 1982), 53. Jennifer Mendelsohn, Human Help at OPAC Terminals is User Friendly: A Preliminary Study, RQ 34 (Winter 1994): 173-90. Cecilia D. Stafford and William M. Serban,